Dizzying But Invisible Depth – Complex stuffs behind the simple machines..!

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It Seems to be very large post but its worth to read. A wonderful essay by Google Engineer.

You just went to the Google home page.

Simple, isn’t it?

What just actually happened?

Well, when you know a bit of about how browsers work, it’s not quite that simple. You’ve just put into play HTTP, HTML, CSS, ECMAscript, and more. Those are actually such incredibly complex technologies that they’ll make any engineer dizzy if they think about them too much, and such that no single company can deal with that entire complexity.

Let’s simplify.

You just connected your computer to www.google.com.

Simple, isn’t it?

What just actually happened?

Well, when you know a bit about how networks work, it’s not quite that simple. You’ve just put into play DNS, TCP, UDP, IP, Wifi, Ethernet, DOCSIS, OC, SONET, and more. Those are actually such incredibly complex technologies that they’ll make any engineer dizzy if they think about them too much, and such that no single company can deal with that entire complexity.

Let’s simplify.

You just typed www.google.com in the location bar of your browser.

Simple, isn’t it?

What just actually happened?

Well, when you know a bit about how operating systems work, it’s not quite that simple. You’ve just put into play a kernel, a USB host stack, an input dispatcher, an event handler, a font hinter, a sub-pixel rasterizer, a windowing system, a graphics driver, and more, all of those written in high-level languages that get processed by compilers, linkers, optimizers, interpreters, and more. Those are actually such incredibly complex technologies that they’ll make any engineer dizzy if they think about them too much, and such that no single company can deal with that entire complexity.

Let’s simplify.

You just pressed a key on your keyboard.

Simple, isn’t it?

What just actually happened?

Well, when you know about bit about how input peripherals work, it’s not quite that simple. You’ve just put into play a power regulator, a debouncer, an input multiplexer, a USB device stack, a USB hub stack, all of that implemented in a single chip. That chip is built around thinly sliced wafers of highly purified single-crystal silicon ingot, doped with minute quantities of other atoms that are blasted into the crystal structure, interconnected with multiple layers of aluminum or copper, that are deposited according to patterns of high-energy ultraviolet light that are focused to a precision of a fraction of a micron, connected to the outside world via thin gold wires, all inside a packaging made of a dimensionally and thermally stable resin. The doping patterns and the interconnects implement transistors, which are grouped together to create logic gates. In some parts of the chip, logic gates are combined to create arithmetic and bitwise functions, which are combined to create an ALU. In another part of the chip, logic gates are combined into bistable loops, which are lined up into rows, which are combined with selectors to create a register bank. In another part of the chip, logic gates are combined into bus controllers and instruction decoders and microcode to create an execution scheduler. In another part of the chip, they’re combined into address and data multiplexers and timing circuitry to create a memory controller. There’s even more. Those are actually such incredibly complex technologies that they’ll make any engineer dizzy if they think about them too much, and such that no single company can deal with that entire complexity.

Can we simplify further?

In fact, very scarily, no, we can’t. We can barely comprehend the complexity of a single chip in a computer keyboard, and yet there’s no simpler level. The next step takes us to the software that is used to design the chip’s logic, and that software itself has a level of complexity that requires to go back to the top of the loop.

Today’s computers are so complex that they can only be designed and manufactured with slightly less complex computers. In turn the computers used for the design and manufacture are so complex that they themselves can only be designed and manufactured with slightly less complex computers. You’d have to go through many such loops to get back to a level that could possibly be re-built from scratch.

Once you start to understand how our modern devices work and how they’re created, it’s impossible to not be dizzy about the depth of everything that’s involved, and to not be in awe about the fact that they work at all, when Murphy’s law says that they simply shouldn’t possibly work.

For non-technologists, this is all a black box. That is a great success of technology: all those layers of complexity are entirely hidden and people can use them without even knowing that they exist at all. That is the reason why many people can find computers so frustrating to use: there are so many things that can possibly go wrong that some of them inevitably will, but the complexity goes so deep that it’s impossible for most users to be able to do anything about any error.

That is also why it’s so hard for technologists and non-technologists to communicate together: technologists know too much about too many layers and non-technologists know too little about too few layers to be able to establish effective direct communication. The gap is so large that it’s not even possible any more to have a single person be an intermediate between those two groups, and that’s why e.g. we end up with those convoluted technical support call centers and their multiple tiers. Without such deep support structures, you end up with the frustrating situation that we see when end users have access to a bug database that is directly used by engineers: neither the end users nor the engineers get the information that they need to accomplish their goals.

That is why the mainstream press and the general population has talked so much about Steve Jobs’ death and comparatively so little about Dennis Ritchie’s: Steve’s influence was at a layer that most people could see, while Dennis’ was much deeper. On the one hand, I can imagine where the computing world would be without the work that Jobs did and the people he inspired: probably a bit less shiny, a bit more beige, a bit more square. Deep inside, though, our devices would still work the same way and do the same things. On the other hand, I literally can’t imagine where the computing world would be without the work that Ritchie did and the people he inspired. By the mid 80s, Ritchie’s influence had taken over, and even back then very little remained of the pre-Ritchie world.

Finally, last but not least, that is why our patent system is broken: technology has done such an amazing job at hiding its complexity that the people regulating and running the patent system are barely even aware of the complexity of what they’re regulating and running. That’s the ultimate bikeshedding: just like the proverbial discussions in the town hall about a nuclear power plant end up being about the paint color for the plant’s bike shed, the patent discussions about modern computing systems end up being about screen sizes and icon ordering, because in both cases those are the only aspect that the people involved in the discussion are capable of discussing, even though they are irrelevant to the actual function of the overall system being discussed.

Source: Thanks to Google engineer Jean-Baptiste Quéru

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Under water river…

Have any one heard about underwater river…??

here about the amazing river…

The river is in Mexico :  Cenote Angelita Mexico.

See the pictures of the river and these amazing pictures were taken by Anatoly Beloshchin in the cave Cenote Angelita..

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He talks about the river, “We are 30 meters deep, fresh water, then 60 meters deep– salty water and under me I see a river, island and fallen leaves… Actually,the river, which you can see, is a layer of hydrogen sulphide.It must be an unforgettable feeling once you’re there and see it with your own eyes”.

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North Korea’s third nuclear test

North Korea rocket

North Korea conducted its third nuclear test on Tuesday in defiance of U.N. resolutions, drawing condemnation from around the world, including from its only major ally, China, which summoned the North Korean ambassador to protest.

Pyongyang said the test was an act of self-defense against “U.S. hostility” and threatened stronger steps if necessary.

North Korea has warned it will follow up the nuclear test it carried out on Tuesday with “stronger” actions unless the US ends its hostility towards the regime.

“This nuclear test was only the first response we took with maximum restraint,” an unnamed spokesman for the North Korean foreign ministry said in a statement carried by the official KCNA news agency.

“If the United States continues to come out with hostility and complicates the situation, we will be forced to take stronger, second and third responses in consecutive steps.” The agency did not say what those steps might be.

The test, which took place in the north-east of the country just before noon local time, could bring North Korea closer to developing a nuclear warhead small enough to be mounted on a long-range missile and possibly bringing the west coast of the US within striking distance.

Obama called the test a “highly provocative act” that hurt regional stability.

“The danger posed by North Korea’s threatening activities warrants further swift and credible action by the international community. The United States will also continue to take steps necessary to defend ourselves and our allies,” Obama said.

U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice said Washington and its allies intended to “augment the sanctions regime” already in place due to Pyongyang’s previous atomic tests. North Korea is already one of the most heavily sanctioned states in the world and has few external economic links that can be targeted.

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said the test was a “grave threat” that could not be tolerated.

Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov urged North Korea to abandon its nuclear arms program and return to talks. NATO condemned the test as an “irresponsible act.”

“Now the next step for North Korea will be to offer talks… – any form to start up discussion again to bring things to their advantage,” predicted Jeung Young-tae, senior research fellow at the Korea Institute for National Unification in Seoul.

How to hide a folder in windows

TO HIDE THE FOLDER WITHOUT ANY SOFTWARE:

STEP 1:

Right click a folder and click on properties

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STEP 2:

Then select the tab customize and select change icon button

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STEP 3:

Select the black space in change icon box

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STEP 4:

Then click ok… the folder will look like this

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STEP 5:

Then to make the folder name invisble click F2 to rename and press alt+255 keep in mind that the num 255 must be pressed from numberpad in the keyboard… donot use the  numbers which are above the alphebets… then the folder will be:

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The folder is hidden… 🙂

Classical languages in the world

7 Classical Treasure Language of the World:

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Tamil:

Language Family      –         Dravidian
Written System        –        Tamil Script
Civilization               –        Indus-Valley Civilization
Origin                      –        before 300 BC(Some Estimate over 2000BC )
Native Speakers       –         >77 million

Greek:

Language Family      –        Indo-European
Writing System        –        Greek alphabet
Civilization               –        Greek Civilization.
Origin                      –        Beyond 3000 BC(Believed to still more than 5000BC)
Native Speaker         –       >15.2 million

Latin:

Language Family       –         Indo-European
Writing System         –         Latin alphabet
Civilization                –         Roman Civilization
Origin                       –        Around  1000 BC
Native Speaker          –        <1,00,000(Vatican City,Italy)

Hebrew:

Language Family        –         Afro-Asiatic
Writing System          –         Hebrew alphabets
Civilization                 –         Post-Mesopotamian Civilization
Origin                        –        around 10th century BC
Native Speaker           –        Native Speaker extincted around 7 th century AD, 1.4 Billion

Sanskrit:

Language Family         –       Indo-Aryan
Written System           –       No native script(Written in Devanagari)
Civilization                  –       Hindu Culture(Since language confined to Hindu Brahmin)
Origin                         –       3000 BC(Rig Veda)
Native Speaker            –      <5,000